Theoretical determination of human trafficking notion
Teorijsko određenje pojma trgovine ljudima
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There is not a uniform understanding of the notion of human trafficking in neither domestic theory or practice. Due to certain imperfections, the recent legal solutions are unacceptable from the aspect of security sciences. The existing determinations of human trafficking are predominantly based on the conception of the notion of white slavery, or trafficking in white slavery. Such a conception is unacceptable due to several reasons: white slavery implies primarily women and children, while men being lower in number than women (but not insignificant) are not included by it; white slavery consists of members of white race, while the victims of human trafficking include the members of other races, especially black and yellow. Taking into account non-discriminatory attitude and relation towards victims, we argue that slave is a slave, regardless of the skin colour. The basic form of exploitation of white slavery is sexual, while the exploitation of victims of contemporary human traffickin...g is just one form of it (in addition to work exploitation, sexual exploitation, illegal adoption of children, compulsory marriages, trade in human organs or body parts, compulsory participation in armed conflicts, compulsion to commit certain crimes, human trafficking in narrow sense and other non-specific forms of exploitation). The phenomenon of white slavery includes foreign elements and international dimension (at least trans-border level), while the contemporary human trafficking does not have to cross over the state borders of a country. Due to the above stated, it can be concluded that the notion of white slavery trafficking is narrower than the notion of human trafficking and represents its sub-category. Premises in creation of a definition of human trafficking must start from the facts that it is a manifestation of security endangering, which causes certain negative consequences. Furthermore, it is based on slavery and exploitation of others. The ultimate goal is exploitation of victims and it must include all forms and types of exploitation, which, by the way, do not have to be itemized. Taking into account the stated premises, human trafficking could be defined as a complex manifestation of endangering security based on institutions of slavery and exploitation, or in other words, on treating a man as a commodity or thing, with the aim to exploit their labour, knowledge, skills, bodily and sexual integrity and identity in order to satisfy personal or someone else’s instinctual, health and emotional needs or gaining direct or indirect material gain for oneself or somebody else. The state security is at that endangered in the spheres of foreign policy and home stability, as well as society in the sphere of public security and an individual in the sphere of violation of human rights. In the near future, the offered definition will certainly undergo certain changes, or corrections and amendments of its content, which largely depends on dynamics and metamorphosis of types and forms of human trafficking manifestation in security practice, on one hand, and the scope of devotion of scientific and expert public to this problem, on the other hand.
Jedna od izraženijih dimenzija problema trgovine ljudima u našoj zemlji jeste nepostojanje jedinstvene definicije i shvatanja ove pojave u zakonskim aktima, teoriji i praksi subjekata bezbednosti. Tek nedavnim zakonskim rešenjem definisana su krivična dela koja direktno ili indirektno sankcionišu trgovinu ljudima, odnosno njihovu eksploataciju. Ta određenja su, zbog izvesnih nedostataka, neprihvatljiva s aspekta bezbednosnih nauka. S druge strane, teorije različitih nauka i naučnih disciplina imale su sopstveni pristup u definisanju trgovine ljudima koji su, i pored velikih sličnosti, ipak originalni, ali često nedovoljni da bi se ovaj fenomen u potpunosti sagledao. U radu se ukazuje na probleme oko teorijskog određenja pojma trgovine ljudima, bitna obeležja ove bezbednosne pojave, nedostatke pojmovnog određenja u teoriji određenih naučnih disciplina i domaćem krivičnom zakonodavstvu, te na osnovu toga nastoji da se definiše trgovina ljudima s aspekta bezbednosnih nauka.
Keywords:trgovina ljudima / pojmovno određenje / teorija bezbednosnih nauka
Source:Nauka, bezbednost, policija, 2004, 9, 2-3, 173-192
- Kriminalističko- policijska akademija, Beograd