Human trafficking as a form of organized crime: Main phenomenological features
Trgovina ljudima kao oblik organizovanog kriminala - osnovna fenomenološka obeležja
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Human trafficking is a complex socio-pathological phenomenon based on (historical) institutions of slavery and exploitation, i.e. on treating a man as goods or a thing, in order to exploit his labor power, knowledge and skills, bodily and sexual integrity in order to satisfy one's own or someone else's instinct, health or emotional needs or in order to gain direct or indirect material profit for oneself or somebody else. Certain forms of slavery and exploitation of persons known from ancient times can be seen today in identical form (public selling of victims, working exploitation in agricultural and home sector, sexual exploitation, forced participation in armed conflicts) or in modified forms (working exploitation in industrial sector, illegal adoption), and there are completely new forms (trafficking in human bodily organs or parts, performing medical experiments, forced pregnancy, and similar). On the other hand, manifesting forms of human trafficking do not differ in practice from... some other similar phenomena primarily smuggling of migrants, prostitution and work of illegal migrants in so-called black economy sector. This is why it has been pointed to the main features of this phenomenon. The conclusion is that human trafficking is a multi-manifesting phenomenon, and this is why it is very difficult to come to a comprehensive, generally accepted classification of its manifesting forms. The offered classification of forms of human trafficking according to the degree of social danger, geographical level of implementation, physical and biological characteristics of victims and relation of victim to his/her position, in principle, does not exclude the possibility of some other classification. The cases of human trafficking in practice can almost always be identified as some of possible combination of previously mentioned forms and types. In addition to being a multi-manifesting, human trafficking is also a multi-structural phenomenon. The process of its realization, in principle, consists of four stages with many sub-stages within each of them. The dominant moments in realization of human trafficking are certainly recruiting of victims, their transport, exploitation and elimination. Finally, human trafficking is exceptionally developed and represented activity of organized criminal groups, more and more oft en transnational in scope. Excessive demand for sexual services increased the excessive demand for the victims of trafficking, but also the division of "jobs" among criminal organizations, their specialization and tendency to create monopole position at "human market", which is more and more characterized by marketing, work of agencies, rules of business operations and other epithets of modern economic management. There are huge possibilities of profit since the victims can be exploited in many various ways. The knowledge of the main characteristics of certain forms of human trafficking is an important condition to identify these complex and dynamic phenomena in practice, then to distinguish the human trafficking from other similar security problems as well as to identify active and passive subjects in human trafficking.
U radu se ukazuje na najbitnija fenomenološka obeležja savremenih oblika trgovine ljudima kao vida organizovane kriminalne delatnosti. S tim u vezi ukazuje se na specifičnosti vidova i oblika manifestacije trgovine ljudima na principijelnu strukturu procesa realizacije, kao i na bitna obeležja i poziciju ovog "krimi biznisa" u tzv. "ekonomiji nacionalnog i transnacionalnog organizovanog kriminala".
Keywords:trgovina ljudima / organizovani kriminal / fenomenološka obeležja
Source:Nauka, bezbednost, policija, 2006, 11, 1, 109-130
- Kriminalističko- policijska akademija, Beograd